How to Discharge Student Loans via Bankruptcy

Many, if not most, college students take out loans to finance their education. This is a stark reality particularly as the price of college education continues to rise.

The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau revealed that more than 41 million Americans are now facing federal student loan debt. On the average, each owes the government almost $30,000 in student loan debt and one in four borrowers are either in default or behind their payments.

Unfortunately, not all student-borrowers are able to settle their payments by the time they graduate. Many still have to deal with repaying their loans even after college. Some have even resorted to filing bankruptcy just so they could discharge of their student loans.

Discharging student loans, however, is not encouraged by U.S. Congress believing that educated workers command higher salaries and can become more competitive in the global economy. The process has been made more difficult and requires students to repay their loans even if they don’t complete their education or could not get employed in their specific area of study. In fact, student loan discharge via bankruptcy has more restrictions than discharging other forms of debt.

Steps to Discharge a Student Loan

Today, there are only a few circumstances that a student can have his federal loan discharged. And he or she needs to prove to the bankruptcy court his financial hardship in settling the loan.

To determine the level of hardship, the court uses three criteria. The first is the student will not be able to maintain a minimal standard of living if forced to continue paying the loan. Secondly, there should be evidence that the financial difficulty will continue during the loan repayment period and third, the borrower has made an effort to repay the loan usually for a minimum of five years before filing bankruptcy.

In the event that any of these requirements are found not true, the loan will not be discharged. If the loan is discharged, the borrower will not have to repay any longer as the collection will be stopped.

Students who are firm in filing for bankruptcy can choose between Chapter 7 and Chapter 13 bankruptcy. A major requirement under Chapter 7 is to prove that the borrower has no steady income to pay his debts. It should be understood, though that your loan debt will not be totally eliminated as you will still have to pay at the terms you can afford.

Chapter 13, on the other hand, is suited for debtors who have income and who can still afford to pay part of their debts. This also includes a restructure scheme in the repayment of debts with your monthly payments having a chance to be reduced. You’re not off the hook, though, even after your bankruptcy repayment period ends.

Do take note that although these two options can eliminate your debt including medical or credit card bills, the borrower may still have to give up some of his property to repay part of his debt. Normally, the process of loan discharge through bankruptcy takes four to six months.

What kind of insurance do students need on campus?

College life is the beginning of many new things for teens. It usually means living on their own, being independent, having a new set of friends and companions, and basically making a transition into adulthood.

A lot of decisions have to be made with regard to moving into college. You might find yourself asking questions like, how many units should I take? What kind of part time job should I get for additional income? Should I live on campus or off it? These are just some. With these tough decision to make, along with weighing the costs of each, students might forget the need for insurance while in college. What kind of insurance do students need while in college?

There are three major types of insurance that students need or would consider; that would be beneficial to them in the long run. These are health insurance, renters insurance, and car insurance. Let’s take a look at each one.

Health insurance

Getting sick entails a lot of unwanted costs. The problem is, we do not know when we are getting sick and for how long we will stay in the hospital if we do. Additionally, there are other costs like medication that should be taken into consideration after going out of the hospital. As such, getting health insurance is highly encouraged. Some schools even make this a requirement prior to enrollment.

There are two popular ways to get this – as a dependent on your parents’ health insurance coverage (which lasts until age 26), or a student health insurance policy.

If you have a pre-existing medical condition, it is highly recommended that you stay as a dependent, since getting your own plan would most likely entail additional costs. Healthier students have the option of getting an individual health care plan thru the college they’re in. Most health insurance plans provided on campus are general in nature – meaning they cover mostly smaller claims such as consultations, minor lab work, and others.

Renters insurance

This is one type of insurance that college students often neglect, but is quite important, particularly if you choose to live off campus. Renters insurance covers personal items stolen from vehicles, dorms, or homes – such as laptops, bicycles, furniture, home accessories, and electronic equipment. When students are forced to move due to a covered loss, the relocation expenses are also covered. For an approximate cost of $10 to $30 per month, it’s a good deal that most college students do not take advantage of.

Car insurance

Most college students drive their own cars when they reach college age. That means auto insurance costs as well. You have the option of using your parents’ insurance policy or get your own auto insurance. However, both have their pros and cons and it is best to talk to your insurance agent or search for other insurance plans from other companies in order to make comparisons.

Typically, auto insurance companies offer student discounts. One example of this is a “good student” discount, which some companies offer to students that have consistently good grades. You can get as much as 10 to 20 percent off in this instance.

A good way to save on premiums is to make sure your car has a good safety rating, according to an accident attorney. Anti-theft systems and anti-lock brakes are examples of safety features in a vehicle. When your car is equipped with these, you get a higher safety rating, which then translates into lower insurance costs.

These three types of insurance will come in handy during your college life. It is best to consider each of them and their benefits, especially in the long term.

5 College Expenses You Can Cut Back On

There’s no denying that getting a college education these days is expensive. The truth is, college students most often encounter more expenses as they start the schoolyear. The reason is that they need to spend for other things in addition to the basics that they have to pay upfront such as tuition and accommodation.

A report on Trends in College Pricing from the College Board revealed that tuition and fees make up only 38 percent of the total expenses for in-state students enrolled in public institutions offering four-year courses. For full-time students in community colleges, the expenses is lower by 19 percent even if the student lives away from home. Extra expenses that add up to a college student’s budget normally include books and media, class fees, parking fees for those who drive their own cars, electronics, social activities, fraternities and sororities, food and drinks, mobile phone service, clothing, cable TV, furnishings and travel.

But do not be discouraged because any college student focused on obtaining his degree can take steps to save money. What’s needed are discipline and the commitment to live within one’s means.

Plan Your Meals

Many college students are fond of eating at restaurants or treating their friends without thinking of its impact on their budget. Some are also subscribed to college meal plans which can cost a lot. To lessen your food expense, you can opt for other options including nutritional meals that don’t even involve cooking.

Rent Books

Being in college does not necessarily mean you have to buy all the books required for your subjects. Take note that textbooks are usually sold at a high price but when it’s time to resell them, you’ll only gain a little. So why not use the ones available in your school library or rent books instead? Online, you can find some good resources such as Amazon and Check out those sites for options that fit your budget.

For college scholars, supplies including books are covered in addition to the tuition fees. If you are eligible for a scholarship (academic or athletic) in your chosen school, find out more about it or ask your academic adviser for options available.

Make a Budget Plan

College students should also learn to make their own budget and not rely on their parents on this matter. Most often, many forget about this important part when they are having fun with friends going out and dining out or are eager to buy the latest trends in fashion and gadgets.

But you need to be aware of your expenses and set limits if possible. This applies to all students, whether enrolled as part-time or full-time. If you’re the type of person who has the habit of buying personal items every now and then, it would be a good idea to find a part-time job that can provide you extra income.

Don’t Use a Car

Driving a car can entail add up to your school expenses as you need to spend for your gas on a regular basis. But this is really not necessary if you’re a student, according to Kelly Decsy, among Los Angeles’ best car accident attorney. This is because most campuses are only within walking distance from dorms and apartments. Some universities also have their own buses to service their students who live outside of the campus.

Avoid Data Plans

Those who are subscribed to mobile data plans can actually do away with it as most college and university campuses offer Wi-Fi as a complimentary service to students. Hence with internet access available in school, there’s no need to pay monthly bills for your cell phone data plans.

Domestic Violence on College Campuses Needs to Stop


Earlier this year, a 21-year old student of the University of Washington died after she was strangled to death by her boyfriend in her apartment at University District. The accused, also a student of the same university, was high on drugs and suspected that his girlfriend was conspiring against him. It is only one of a rising number of cases of domestic violence in colleges and universities across the United States.

A survey done by a partnership of The Washington Post and Kaiser Family Foundation in 2015 showed that one in five women say they had been sexually assaulted during their four years in college. Alcohol, drugs, casual encounters and the presence of fraternities and sororities in campus contributed to the prevalence of these incidents. Further, the Justice Department found that 80 percent of these cases are not reported. Hence, the 1-in-5 figure could be an understatement. But in recent years, victims are starting to speak out. Social media, openness among young people and awareness of their rights have helped in bringing to the fore this growing problem. Advocates are more vocal in their criticisms against how colleges and universities for inadequate or inept handling of such cases.

Domestic violence on campuses is not limited to rape or sexual assault. It includes intimidation, physical attacks, battery, psychological and emotional abuse by one partner towards another in an intimate relationship. What complicates an issue of sexual violence is whether the act was consensual, as is usually claimed by the perpetrator, or if it was done forcibly or while the victim was incapacitated. The consequences are dire for the victim. Many drop out, out of frustration and humiliation, especially if the case is not handled well by the school. Oftentimes, victims suffer physical injuries that require treatment and mental health problems related to the violence they have been subjected to. A domestic violence attorney says some victims die at the hands of their partner as in the case of the UW student.

Making a traumatic situation worse for the injured party are law enforcement authorities who are perceived to be lenient towards offenders. The judge in the trial of Brock Turner, a Stanford University student convicted of three counts of felony assault and rape on an unconscious woman, sentenced him to only six months in prison. He was released after serving three months. Prosecutors had recommended six years in prison for the student athlete.

Men and women are supposed to be protected by Title IX, a federal gender equity law that requires reporting of all sexual assault cases from schools. But in 2014, 55 institutions of higher education were investigated for possible violations of this law, according to the White House.

But things are looking better. The Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013, signed into law by Pres. Obama, has a provision called Campus Sexual Violence Elimination Act (Campus SAVE.) Effective July 1, 2015, it calls for schools to report yearly all incidents of domestic violence, dating violence and stalking that occur on campus. This includes acts of violence against gender and national origin. It also mandates schools to provide victims of domestic violence with clear options on reporting to campus officials and the local police department.

School authorities now have a clear guideline to handling domestic violence on school grounds and students feel safer. The amendment bodes well for putting a stop, or reducing, such incidents on campus.

What are the work options like for US exchange students?

If you are an international student currently in the United States, maybe you’re thinking to yourself how to get additional income while studying? Is it legal to work or get a job while in the US on a student visa? Let’s find out if this is possible by taking a look at US rules and regulations concerning this, as well as the any restrictions and requirements of the student visa.

Many foreigners studying in the US hold an F-1 visa, which is the official term for a US non-immigrant student visa. The simple answer to the second question posed above is, yes, it is legal to work while on a student visa (F-1) as long as you meet the conditions and guidelines issued by the United States Citizenship and Immigration Service (USCIS).

On campus employment

This is the easiest work option for foreign students as it does not require prior USCIS approval. Most institutions require you to coordinate with the International Student department prior to being employed on campus. On campus employment means that the work must be directly for the school, or those which provide direct student services.

The following are rules that have to be met:

  • student must maintain valid status
  • while school is in session, the student can only work up to 20 hours a week
  • during vacation season, the student can work full time as long as he/she plans to register for the following semester
  • the employment must not displace a US citizen

Off campus employment

A student with an F-1 visa is not allowed to work off campus unless there is authorization from the International Student office. This authorization is somewhat difficult to obtain – there must be proof of financial hardship due to unforeseen circumstances. Examples of these are, exchange rate severely devalued, a considerable increase in tuition costs, or medical bills that have to be paid, among others. The student must also show that on campus employment is either not available, or insufficient for him/her to be able to overcome the financial hardship. The student can work 20 hours a week during school session, and full time during breaks if:

  • the student has had an F-1 status for at least 9 months or one school year
  • the student has good academic standing
  • proof of financial hardship is presented
  • proof that on-campus employment is insufficient (or unavailable) is presented

Optional Practical Training (OPT)

OPT is a work option provided for foreign students, which is similar to off-campus employment. Students can choose the OPT while they are completing their degree, or even after they graduate. The USCIS governs this area, and a student can only begin working as soon as he/she receives an employment authorization document. Several rules must be followed, such as:

  • employment must be directly related to the student’s major or degree
  • lawful F-1 status
  • OPT is only permitted for a total of 12 months
  • must be full time, if choosing OPT after getting a degree; part-time when school is in session

The common denominator regarding the different work options is maintaining legal student visa status for the entirety of its validity. Any offense against this could lead to being deported and future immigration and visa problems. If there is an area that you wish to clarify regarding your visa status, it is best to consult experts such as green card lawyers, rather than risk doing something illegal and being punished as a result of that decision.

What Should a Graduate’s Goals be After College?       

Graduating from college is one of the best things that can happen to any individual. Not many are privileged to pursue a tertiary education hence, completing a bachelor’s degree should provide a very rewarding feeling to any college student. It should also serve as a motivation to continue pursuing their goals as they start a new chapter in their lives.

College is a stepping stone towards pursuing one’s chosen career although it does not always follow that a student ends up in a job closely related to his major. Regardless, what matters is the education one gained that could help him or her find a decent job after graduation.

In the U.S., research from the Center on Education and Workforce of Georgetown University has noted that the millennials comprise 40 percent of the unemployed sector. But the unemployment rate is already at its lowest level after seven years.

Find a Job

A 2015 Student Engagement Insights survey has found that majority of students hope to get a good job after completing their degree. On the other hand, 62 percent said they want to land in a high-paying job and 56 percent expressed interest in pursuing another degree. Those who wish to take further studies are either aiming for a bachelor’s degree after earning an associate degree or attending graduate school. Many indicated that they want to prepare themselves in fields that need licenses or advanced education.

Start a Business

Enterprising students can also opt to start their own business right after college. Startups owned by young people aged 25 and under are growing these days with some of them gaining success after only a few months in the business. Those who have earned a business degree including those who majored in marketing or entrepreneurship are most suited for this segment.

Starting a business should not be that difficult to college graduates with a business degree. After all, they were taught how to do this in their senior year as a major requirement for graduation.

Attain Personal Satisfaction

Some goals of college students may not really be tangible compared to others. Some claim their goals for pursuing their degree are to attain a broader experience and be happy. The same survey noted that others simply want to achieve a work-life balance, gain more knowledge, be able to travel and give pride to themselves.

Personal satisfaction could also mean finding one’s partner while in college although this does not follow that they end up marrying right after graduation, according to Marina Korol, a divorce lawyer. A 2013 Facebook Data Sciences study noted that an estimated 28 percent of married graduates attended the same college as their spouse.

Be Financially Independent

Along with finding a job and starting a business, many college students aspire to become financially independent moving forward. They feel they need to prove to their parents and to themselves that they can stand on their own and lead an independent life once they finish college. Fortunately, some of those who succeed early are able to enjoy financial freedom and do the things they want. What counts is being able to manage their finances well to enjoy the fruits of their labor for the long term.

Do Volunteer Work

While many college students are aiming to get a job and earn well after college, there are others who have a passion for helping their fellowmen in need or in difficult situations. For this reason, their goal is to join a national or international aid organization such as working for a non-government or non-profit group and the Peace Corps.

Volunteering can actually help a college graduate stand out among other applicants. This is because many employers today look for activities such as volunteering as a unique way of showcasing an applicant’s personality. They are able to determine how well a person can get along with other people as well and practice his other skills through such people-oriented activity.

With these findings, it is clear that most students enroll in college to increase their chances of getting a good job that pays them well.


Therapy for Troubled Teens…Gone Wild

Each year, society seems to create new and sometimes controversial methods to treat the growing problem of teens acting out. Some feel that the common uses of medicine, doctor visits, and boot camp for teenagers are no longer effective for most children. A new form of treatment, known as wilderness therapy, has been the center of debate when discussing the treatment of troubled teens.

Wilderness therapy programs provide teens with a more realistic approach to life. How it works may shock many. Stripping kids of their cell phones, internet, and the outside influences that contribute to bad behavior is meant to shock kids into action. Through team building excercises, these kids learn how to rely on others and build trust within their community. This abrupt, must-needed change in the lives of troubled teenagers all over the country contributes greatly to a disciplined and productive individual.

The children are not alone in these programs. Schools like Woodcreek Academy carefully select other teens in the same age group. Together, they engage in group activities and learn how to survive in extreme conditions. They learn to adjust to changes in their surroundings as well as find and prepare food for themselves.

Unlike boarding schools for troubled boys or girls, these programs make kids learn life skills out of necessity. Every day, they will be practicing communication, survival techniques and respect. They will even learn behavioral skills to ease tensions in life. They will learn from experience, rather than from being taught, which is what makes this kind of therapy effective.


Who Pays For The Tuition? Things Divorcing Parents With College Kids Need To Consider

Kids entering college can be a happy but stressful event for parents. But the stress is compounded when the parents are divorced and paying for the tuition becomes a thorny issue especially if it was not included in the divorce proceedings. This can frequently arise because college-age children are already considered adults at the age of 18 – 21, depending on the state’s definition of adult. And divorce settlements take into consideration only minor and incapacitated children.

But it doesn’t mean that college tuition cannot be included in the stipulations that the couple enter into. Their lawyers can draw up an agreement towards payment for college education, detailing many features, such as what percentage of the amount each spouse will contribute, where the school is located (in state or out of state) and what type of school the child will attend.

States differ in their laws on parents paying for their kids’ college. In most states, parents are not under any obligation to shoulder the expenses for a child’s college education. But the court may step in, as in Washington and Utah, where the judge can order a non-custodial parent to contribute to the college tuition of a child. Aside from tuition, books, room and board, transportation and miscellaneous living expenses are included in the calculation of the cost. Some courts may require the child to maintain a certain grade point average for the parents to continue paying tuition.

In California, there is no mandated support for adult children, unless said child is incapacitated. Support ends when the child reaches 18 years of age, including payment for education. But an agreement can be drawn up to take care of a child’s college studies. This agreement is as good as a contract. It is legally binding and, until recently, non-modifiable.

On April 11, 2014, the Drescher vs. Gross case changed the non-modifiable element on the Marital Settlement Agreement. Lenore Drescher and Mark Gross had divorced in 2001 after 14 years of marriage. They were both lawyers earning six-figure incomes. The agreement stated each spouse would shoulder half of the expenses for the college education of their three children in a school in California. Drescher sought to modify the college education support on the grounds that she was already permanently disabled and was earning only $23,000 a year and Gross had earnings of more than $400,000 a year.

In conclusion, the Court of Appeals decided that the contract of support between spouses for their adult child is modifiable, if present circumstances so warrant. It will be treated like child support for minor children, which is open to modification. The court further added that for a Marital Settlement Agreement to be non-modifiable, both parties must explicitly state such in a court order. Since this is a relatively new law, a divorcing spouse must hire a skilled family attorney who keeps abreast of the law and knows how to negotiate issues in a divorce case that will not compromise his client and the children.

Under the law prior to the Drescher decision, it was not a wise move to agree to any financial conditions regarding support for children under a marital agreement. Unforeseen circumstances may arise and change a present situation, making it disadvantageous for the affected spouse.

In Pennsylvania, divorced parents are not under obligation to provide college education to their children, citing the equal protection clause where married parents have no duty to provide for their children’s college education. It does have a statute where divorced parents may share in the expenses for the college studies of the kid but the statute may be modified or terminated if the financial status of either parent is significantly changed.

A quick glance on the course of medical auditor

At present, people have become very conscious about their career and that’s why they learn varieties courses that help them to achieve their desired goal. You must know that medical auditing is one of the very highly demanded job and many people in these days want to become a professional medical auditor. If you also want to be a certified professional medical auditor then you must learn some special course from a reputable institute. At present, a number of institutes are available and many of these institutes offer varieties courses to the willing people. Before joining this special course you should know about this course properly.


In order to conduct internal or external reviews of coding accuracy, medical auditing is a necessary program which is a bit critical on its part for a profitable physician practice. You must know that a reputable health care depends on exact and proper clinical documentation record. For this reason, to improve the quality of the health care organization people should avail medical record records audit. Providing the better care and improving the financial condition are the prime goals of medical audit and many people avail this service for improving the condition of their health care organization. It is seen that people perform medical audits for various purposes like;

  • In order to prevent health care organization from fraud claim and fraud medical billing.
  • In order to recognize the issue and make them correct.
  • In order to verify health record etc.

How to become a certified professional medical Auditor?

Since it is a very lucrative job so many people in these days want to be a professional medical auditor. Auditors are responsible for auditing medical billing and coding so it is very necessary that the auditors should have knowledge in this respective field. In order to become a professional auditor people have to pass CPMA exam and that’s why willing people have to join a reputable CPMA institute that helps you to achieve your goal. In fact, willing people have to learn medical auditing course that includes many topics and those are;

  • The process of identifying fraud and abuse report in medical documentation.
  • Methods of statistical sampling
  • Coding quality assurance
  • advanced medical coding
  • Proper reporting and communication skills etc.

At present, many institutes are available in cities and these institutes’ offers varieties courses. But to learn this course properly people should join any reputable CPMA institute like Allied Prep Technical Institute.

Allied Prep Technical Institute is a renowned institute and this institute has many certified professional medical auditors. These professionals provide lots of information about this course and also help willing people to learn this course properly. Professionals of this institute prepare their every student very well so that they can pass CPMA exam and be a certified professional medical auditor. This institute offers their course at an affordable price so people can easily join this course. If you want to achieve further details about this company then you must visit their official site at


The Most Superb Music Lessons in Etobicoke

Taking flute lessons at an Etobicoke music school is just one of the many things you can choose to do as a student of music. Whether you are placing your child in flute lessons, or if you wish to take one on one lessons as an adult, there is more than one local Etobicoke music school you can enroll with, to learn this, or the other instruments you wish to play. Depending on your level of experience, whether you prefer group or one on one class, the time in which you hope to learn, and the methods in which you best learn, you will find that there is more than one local school and instructor who can work with you, when learning to play an instrument.
Lesson methods –
Depending on who the student is, each person is going to learn differently. When you are choosing a school and instructor, make sure they offer:
– Group and one on one class.
– Hands on teaching, so they will show you how to play, inform you, and allow you to listen to the music you are learning.
– Teaching in the form of paper, as well as actually playing the instrument, so you learn to read music, as well as play by ear.
No two people are going to learn in the same manner; and, depending on how quickly you learn, some instructors are better than others to work with you. When deciding where to go for lessons, not only do you have to know how they are going to go about teaching, you also want to make sure they are going to guarantee the best form of instruction, and are going to ensure you do get better as time progresses, when you are working with an instructor and learning how to play.

Cost and time –
Again, every student has different limits; so, one student may thrive in a group setting, while others are going to learn best one on one. Some will learn the instrument in a few weeks, others are going to take months or years to master it. In order to ensure you choose the top-rated school, make sure you find one which offers a variety of instruction methods, and informs you regularly about how you are progressing. Also, make sure you know what the costs are, as one on one is going to typically cost far more than a group or classroom setting where you are going to learn as a student.

No matter how well you play now, how good you wish to get, or how quickly you want to learn, there is more than one method of instruction that will work when you want to learn how to play a musical instrument. When choosing an Etobicoke music school, these are a few things to consider as a new student. Not only so you find the best school, and the best instructor, but also to ensure they can work with you in the manner you are best going to learn, as well.